Fundamental research in astrophysics is an inexhaustible source of new knowledge and discoveries. Only in the last decades we have witnessed a wide range of discoveries such as, for example: the detection of gravitational waves and the first light from the source of gravitational waves which, in fact, became the birth of a new field of knowledge – multichannel astrophysics; exoplanets; the accelerating universe, etc. It is well known that most of them are connected, first of all, with the rapid technological development of observational (ground-based and space-borne) and computing facilities. At the same time, the role of ground-based small (up to 1m) telescopes remains relevant for both near and deep space objects. With the development of radiation detector technologies, telescopes of this class have received a second life. One may recall the international observation campaign in 2015 to observe the outburst of the binary system V404 Cygni containing a black hole. Or an international campaign designed to work out planetary protection during the approach to the Earth of a near-Earth asteroid (99942) Apophis from December 2020 to March 2021. Remarkably, the automated optical telescopes of our own observatories were actively involved in those campaigns.
Obviously, today it is difficult to imagine achievements in astrophysics and astronomy (along with the technological part) without international collaboration. In this regard, joining the Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute (FAI) to the International Alliance of Virtual Observatories in 2022 is a good support that provides convenient access to the accumulated astronomical data in the world.
In turn, our own achievements and results today are also largely due to: the modernization of existing telescopes, the installation of new ones, and the acquisition of new detectors; development of an information and communication network, including a high-performance computer cluster at the institute All this makes a good basis for the formation of a new Institute’s program on fundamental astrophysics, which will be aimed at developing and solving those problems of observational and theoretical astrophysics that already have a promising scientific groundwork. Considering all this, we will concentrate the main efforts of this program on the following major areas:
1) “time-domain astrophysics” – to study the variability of symbiotic stars, active galactic nuclei and other objects based on new observational data using our own digitized archive of observations over the past 50 years;
2) “follow-up” observations for asteroids, other objects in the solar system and the afterglow of gamma-ray bursts, including within international campaigns;
3) analytical and numerical modelling in stellar dynamics and physics of stars to study physical and dynamical processes in stars (thermonuclear processes) and stellar systems of different scales (globular clusters, active nuclei of galaxies, galaxies), construction of a cosmological model – dark energy and dark matter, in which the dark component can be explained by a scalar field.

The goal of the Program:
To obtain new results and knowledge based on: our own optical observations using modernized equipment and a unique digitized database and; modelling of physical, dynamical processes and phenomena in the universe using scalable high-performance computing equipment of the Institute.

The tasks of the Program:
The implementation plan of the Program consists of three interrelated tasks:
Task 1. “Time-domain astrophysics” – study of the temporal variability of symbiotic stars, active galactic nuclei and other objects based on new observational data using our own digitized archive of observations over the past 50 years.
Task 2. “Follow-up observations” of asteroids, other objects of the Solar System, and the gamma-ray burst afterglows, including those in the frame of international campaigns;
Task 3. Development of analytical and numerical models in stellar dynamics and physics of stars to study physical and dynamic processes in stars (thermonuclear processes) and stellar systems of various scales (globular clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies), construction of a cosmological model of dark energy and dark matter in which the dark components might be explained by a scalar field.