Tikhov GABRIEL Adrianovich (1875 – 1960). Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. Tikhov Adrianovich Gabriel was born May 1, 1875 in Smolevichi former Minsk province.

In 1897 he graduated from Moscow University in 1898-1900. continued his education at the University of Paris and worked as an intern at the Meudon Observatory
under the direction of Janssen. Returning to Russia, he taught for two years in Moscow and Yekaterinoslav. Over the 1906 – 1941 years. worked at Pulkovo Observatory in 1919, he organized and for 30 years headed the department of astrophysical in the Science Institute. PFLesgaft in Leningrad, which played a major role in training Soviet physicists. From 1941, he lived in Alma-Ata, and worked at the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. From 1947 he was head created on his initiative Sector Astrobotany KazSSR. Main work is devoted to the photometry and colorimetry of the stars and planets, atmospheric optics.
redlozhil two methods detect the dispersion of light in space – on the phase difference of the radial velocities of spectroscopic binaries, measured from the absorption lines in different parts of the spectrum (1898), and the phase difference of the light curves (variable stars, observed in different parts of the spectrum 1908) . Hysteresis found in eclipsing stars in the short-range (effect Tikhova-Nordmann, French astronomer S. Nordman independently discovered this phenomenon in visual observations). At present, this phenomenon has not been associated with space dispersion of light, the lack of which was proved by H. Shapley in 1917.
One of the first to extensively use the method filters in astronomy. In 1909, during the great opposition of Mars got his first photographs in different parts of the spectrum, which found a difference size and brightness of the polar caps in different lights, established the existence of a blue haze in the planet’s atmosphere, surface features are veiled in the shortwave spectrum. Also performed calorimetric studies of Saturn (1909, 1911), Uranus and Neptune (1922). In 1914, with the help of filters from the observations earth light first defined the color of the earth, which it should have when viewed from space found that the Earth should have a bluish tint. In 1915, a new method for rapid determination of the approximate color of the star, which uses a lens with strong chromatic aberration in the photographic region (method longitudinal spectrograph) in 1937 and 1951 published a catalog of about 18,000 colors of stars in Kapteyn areas.
For 40 years G.A.Tihov studied physical nature of Mars. Based on observations of the planet in different spectral regions looking for evidence of vegetation on Mars, this had a large series of experiments to determine the spectral reflectance of terrestrial plants growing in a variety of climates, soils and other natural formations. These studies emerged and formed a new branch of astronomy called GA Tikhov Astrobotany.
A number of papers devoted to the study of the optical properties of the atmosphere. In 1912, the proposed design of the instrument for recording and playback, twinkling stars. During the First World War, dealt with problems of aerial photography – the development of technology of the photographic process, reducing the effect of air haze, optical studies of the natural landscape. In 1930 he organized a photometric laboratory at the Institute of aerial photography. In 1936 he opened the anomalous dispersion of light in the atmosphere, developed an original Sapphire tsianometr for learning colors the daytime sky and stayed with him for many series of observations.
He actively participated in 20 scientific expeditions, including five expeditions to observe the total solar eclipse (in 1914, 1927, 1936, 1941, 1945). In the observation of the eclipse in 1936, first noticed that the crown is composed of two parts: an unstructured “matte” crown and penetrating her jets “radiant” crown. Assessed the color temperature of the corona.
XV Congress of the International Astronomical Union, held in 1973 in Sydney, approved range of topographical detail on Mars, which was developed by a special international commission after the entire surface of Mars was photographed by the spacecraft “Mariner-9”. To name a majority of surface formations – mountains, canyons, valleys, plains, plateaus, etc. – use the classic names given J. E. Schiaparelli and Antoniadi of mapping Mars. Craters with dimensions greater than 20 km (about 6000) were given marks. About 190 of the largest craters, usually more than 100 km in diameter, were named after famous scientists, or directly involved in the study of Mars, or contributed to his work better understanding of the nature of the planet. One of the craters of Mars is named after the astronomer Tikhova GA.
XIV Congress of the International Astronomical Union, held in 1970 in Brighton (England), approved the list of names of more than 500 craters on the Moon, which was developed by a special international commission. One of the craters of the moon is named after Tikhova GA Tikhov Gabriel Adrianovich several foreign languages ​​(English poorly, French and German well). Honorary member of many scientific societies. Laureate of the Paris Academy of Sciences and two prizes Russian Astronomical Society. In 1945 he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner and the medal “For Valiant Labor”.