Rozhkovsky Dmitry Alexandrovich (1915 Р1991). Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Kazakh SSR. Rozhkovsky Dmitry was born in October 1915. g.Tara Omsk in the former province in the family of the employee.

In 1923 the family moved to Tomsk, where DA Rozhkovsky was in elementary school, and after the seventh grade worked in shops and match factory radio center “Siberia” (1931-1932 gg.).
In 1932, he enrolled in the College of Electrical Tomsk, after graduating in 1936 aimed at the Novosibirsk Tomsk railway management, with the right to continue further education at the Leningrad Institute of Communications (against 5% of normal). In 1936. DA Rozhkovsky resolution chief of railroad ties entered the Physics and Mathematics, Tomsk State University, graduating in 1941 with a degree, “astronomy”. After graduating from TSU worked for a year in the AGP of Novosibirsk. Then, after moving to the Semipalatinsk was a teacher of physics and mechanics of geological exploration College.
In 1946, DA Rozhkovsky enrolled in graduate school at the Institute of Astronomy and Physics (IAF), the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR (Alma-Ata), then moved to the correspondence postgraduate study and worked as a research assistant.
DA Rozhkovsky was behind the establishment of astronomy in Kazakhstan, as a student and follower of the founder of the IAF academician VG Fesenkov, he not only embodied in the life of his ideas, but also the chief observer in IAF, and then in the Astrophysical Institute.
In 1947-1950. DA Rozhkovsky prepared and successfully defended his thesis on “The photographic photometry of selected areas of the Milky Way.” It should be noted that it is time-consuming work was done with very simple observation means (FED camera with high-aperture lens, “Zonnar”). Original technique allowed us to consider all the components of the night sky and determine the absolute brightness of the three sections of the Milky Way, to get it isophotes based on structural features which set the Galaxy.
Since 1951. and over the next forty years, DA Rozhkovsky headed the Department of Astrophysics of the Astrophysical Institute of Kazakh Academy of Sciences (APIs). Since 50-ies’s research interests DA Rozhkovsky mainly related to the study of the interstellar medium and the gas and dust nebulae. Similar studies have been made possible after the entry into service-aperture meniscus telescope DD Maksutov. This telescope was the first native instrument of this type. Effective use was provided by DA Rozhkovsky, who worked hard, carefully analyzing all the features of this tool to achieve its maximum efficiency when observing extremely faint objects. For this purpose, it uses a special, original technique to study the actual telescope, with fixed a number of design flaws, as well as suitable methods developed photographic and polarimetric observations, which in later years have been continuously improved. During his nearly half-century of scientific activity DA Rozhkovsky received more than 5,000 photographs of celestial objects and created glass negatives of the library facilities.
In 1950, Academician VG Fesenkov and DA Rozhkovsky initiated a detailed study of galactic gas and dust nebulae. A large collection of original photographs, more than 700 negatives allowed to prepare and publish in 1953 for the first time in the USSR “Atlas of gas and dust nebulae,” which presented the reproductions of several tens of nebulae and their individual parts. The aim of this work was to study the evolution and structure of the nebula, turbulent phenomena in interstellar clouds and around hot stars. High-quality photos of the atlas clearly illustrated original panorama of the fine structure of objects formed by the emission of ionized gas and dust is allowed to reveal the light-scattering of stars. Atlas contains a new, very useful information and stimulated interest to astronomers observed nebulae.
A detailed study of a large observational material allowed DA Rozhkovsky to open about 30 new diffuse nebulae. In 1961, DA Rozhkovsky defended at Moscow State University (MSU) doctoral thesis: “Investigation of gas and dust nebulae on the basis of photographic observations with high-aperture telescope Maksutov”, which shows the results of the physical characteristics of gas and dust nebulae are detailed photometric features work on the telescope.
In 50-60 years, DA Rozhkovsky and AV Kurchakovym large observational data obtained by the study of reflection nebulae. For this purpose, we developed a special method of observations and photometric processing. In 1968 he published a catalog of 120 photometric nebulae, which shows the coordinates of the nebulae, integral luster, size, distance, the magnitudes of the central stars, as well as new data on the photometric characteristics, the morphology of nebulae and stars of the relationship with the substance of reflection nebulae. Established a genetic link with the dark nebulae clouds Milky Way, given statistics on the angular distribution of their size and shape. Comparison of the observed brightness distribution of a spherical nebula with a theoretical possible to estimate the albedo (reflectivity) and size of dust particles.
Using a huge observational data, DA Rozhkovsky in subsequent years, a long series of theoretical studies of the scattering of light in reflection nebulae and high-latitude clouds of interstellar medium. The models of scattering media with different indicatrices, estimate the average size of interstellar dust, obtained entirely independent evaluation albedo. DA Rozhkovsky and MA Nazaraliev used Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transfer in a spherical nebula of dust that scatters light of foreign stars. Analysis of the transport equation by this method on a computer for various models allowed to present an integrated nebula shine as a simple ratio that takes into account multiple times and with sufficient accuracy anisotropic scattering. These results are used to interpret the observed brightness, color and polarization of some absorbing clouds and nebulae, as well as to characterize the properties of the interstellar dust, these objects.
DA was unchanged interest Rozhkovsky to systematic observations of comets, asteroids, satellites of the major planets. Comet patrol led by DA Rozhkovsky started to operate since the 50s, first used a telescope Maksutov, then DA Rozhkovsky improved small-aperture Schmidt camera, with 1975 observations at astrogeodezicheskoy Schmidt camera. These studies of comets of great interest not only for astrophysics, as well as physical chemistry, cosmology and space exploration.
DA Rozhkovsky was a member of the All-Union Commission on the study of comets at the Presidium of the USSR. DA Rozhkovsky took an active part in the observations of satellites and rockets. He developed an ingenious method of observation – the use of oscillating plate, making it very accurately align the desired coordinates with the observation time.
DA Rozhkovsky developed many original adaptations to Maksutov telescope and a number of laboratory instruments, which are still regularly used by observers. Ten of them certificates of innovations. It should be noted a very good experience with automatic polyarigrafa to the microprocessor, which gave the opportunity to get on the same photographic plate simultaneously three consecutive shots of comets and nebulae, which excludes changes in atmospheric conditions.
Universal comparator designed DA Rozhkovsky successfully used in the comparison of two images of celestial objects to determine the brightness of the stars and search calculation of variable stars, and the method used color contrast. If photographed maksutovskom Telescope Faint Object DA Rozhkovsky used the image converter, which reduces the time of observation and interference filters used to select individual issues.
Extremely much effort and ingenuity displayed DA Rozhkovsky for the effective use of various photographs in astronomical practice. On this subject, he published a major review, which shows the spectral characteristics of emulsions, different optimal recipes and methods of hypersensitivity symptoms. A technique for sensitometric studies using photographs constructed DA Rozhkovsky very simple device that made it possible to quickly identify the optimal exposure for the sort of emulsion with the brightness of the night sky. For dozens of emulsions, the most commonly used in astrophotography, using this technique to study their possible when shooting with different filters.
Much attention DA Rozhkovsky paid astroclimate research in different areas of Kazakhstan, he developed the technique and provide guidance to the observations. Based on many years of observations, conducted by a large group of employees of the Institute, chosen very good in terms of astroclimate place – Assy-Turgen mountain plateau, where they were installed meter and half-meter telescopes.
As head of the department of the Astrophysical Institute of the Kazakh SSR DA Rozhkovsky prepared six candidates and official opponent has spoken in defense of theses by the Scientific Council of the USSR observatories.
In 1968, DA Rozhkovsky awarded the title of professor. His research and teaching work was recognized with a number of government awards, he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, medals and diplomas of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR, was awarded the title of Honored Scientist of the Kazakh SSR.
80th anniversary of the birth of Dmitry Alexandrovich Rozhkovskaya, one of the founders of astronomy and astrophysics in Kazakhstan, noted scholars of the Astrophysical Institute. VG Fesenkov in Almaty on November 30 – December 1, 1995 In memory of D. Rozhkovsky was held at the Institute is dedicated to conference, which coincided with the 45th anniversary of the Institute.
The legacy that has left Dmitry science – it dozens of publications, voluminous atlas of gas and dust nebulae, based on photographs taken by meniscus telescope, and an extensive “glass library” – a priceless collection of a large number of negatives with images of the sky: it’s – all fixed indicated by the position, brightness, and the forms of interstellar matter, comets, stars and other celestial objects, many of which may eventually change its characteristics. And most importantly – this brought up in his students the serious and conscientious attitude to scientific creativity and the search.