FesenkovFesenkov Vasily (1889 – 1972)Doctor of Sciences, Professor, Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. Fesenko Vasily was born January 13, 1889 in Novocherkassk. In 1911, he graduated from Kharkov University and was left in him to prepare for the professorship.

In 1912-1914. studied at the Sorbonne (Paris) and worked in the observatories of Paris and Nice. In 1914 he defended his doctoral thesis at the Sorbonne on the “zodiacal light.” One of the founders of the Russian Institute for Astrophysics (Director 1923-1930), later Astronomical Institute of the PK Sternberg (Director 1936-1939). In 1924 he founded at Moscow Kuchinskaya Observatory, and in the same year he organized the publication of the All-Union Astronomical Journal, whose editor was about 40 years old.

At the initiative of VG Fesenkov in 1936 based Astronomical Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences, whose work he led in 1936-1937., And in later years was a member of the council. In 1933, VG Fesenkov creates MSU Department of Astrophysics and chaired until 1948.

In 1941-1945. VG Fesenkov assigned authorized the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in academic institutions, evacuated to the Kazakh SSR (Alma-Ata). Becoming in 1942 a member of the Presidium of the Kazakh branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, he together with Academician KI Satpayev and other scientists have become the founders of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. The Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR VG Fesenkov served Academician Secretary of the Department of Physics and Mathematics. In this position, VG Fesenkov has stimulated further development of physics and astronomy in Kazakhstan

The latest brainchild of organizational activity VG Fesenkov was the Institute of Astronomy and Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the director and supervisor of which he was from 1941 to 1964 In 1950, at the Institute of Astronomy and Physics was established two institutions: the Astrophysical Institute and Physico-Technical Institute, later broke away from him Institute nuclear physics.

It should be pointed out that at the same time (1945-1972 gg.) VG Fesenkov chaired Meteor Committee of the USSR. In 1946, VG Fesenkov was elected a member of the Kazakh Academy of Sciences, and in 1947 he was awarded the title of Honoured Scientist of the Kazakh SSR. Academician VG Fesenkov was not only a prominent organizer of science, but also an outstanding versatile scientist. He has published about 800 papers in physics and astronomy.

VG Fesenkov – one of the founders of astrophysics. Results of his research activities are diverse. First time (1914) made a photometric study of the zodiacal light with photometer designed by him and concluded that the distribution of interstellar dust. Showed that the material, which determines the zodiacal light – a product of the disintegration of comets and some asteroids. A catalog of magnitudes and color-indices of 1290 stars to 9th magnitude. Got (1940) statistical link color equivalent of the galactic latitude and spectral type stars. In 1919-1922. investigated the problem of the origin of the solar system by the nature of the solar comet cloud and features of the chemical composition of meteorites. According to his theory, the sun and planets were formed at the same time of the gas-dust nebula in the same development. Developed the question of the formation of organic matter in the universe. The conclusion to the impossibility of the higher forms of vegetation on Mars and other planets. Based on the phenomenon of polarization optical methods proposed upper air sounding. Showed that the equatorial acceleration of the sun can be a consequence of its gravitational contraction. Discovered (1914) the degree of polarization of the solar corona on the position angle, which confirmed the inadequacy of spherical symmetry model of the solar corona. Brought the value of the total mass of dust matter galaxy equal 109 solar masses.

A method for determining the absorption of light in the dark nebulae (1935). Discovered stellar chains linked to the fibers of nebulae and stars, which turned recently emerged. Determine the speed of the fibers in the constellation Cygnus. Polarization methods set the upper limit of the observations of the lunar atmosphere (1943). Determined the specific heat of the lunar surface material, proposed a model of its morphological features. In 1944 he developed the theory of the brightness distribution over the disk of Mars. Determined the atmospheric pressure at the bottom of the Martian atmosphere by distributing its properties. Developed a method for the determination of absorption in the atmosphere of Jupiter. In 1952, a hypothesis streaking Jupiter. Led a lot of work to determine the speed and direction of motion of the Sun on the basis of analysis of radial velocities of 2666 and 1150 full-speed stars.

Great scientific work Vasily always closely linked to the teaching and training of scientific personnel, the active promotion of science and social work. Among his pupils – Academy of Sciences of the USSR AB North, and Corresponding Members of the USSR – ER Mustel, N. Pariiskii, PP Parenago, professors and doctors, NB Divari, AL Zel’manov, GM Idlis, JN Lipsky, CF Gardeners, EV Pyaskovskaya-Fesenkova, DA Rozhkovsky, GF Bulrush, NM Staude and a number of candidates.

Heading over twenty years, first Institute of Astronomy, and then the Astrophysical Institute, VG Fesenkov in Kazakhstan laid a solid foundation for the development of such scientific fields as the study of the stars, the interstellar medium, diffuse nebulae, galaxies, physics of the sun, moon and planets, atmospheric optics.

normous scientific and organizational activity of VG Fesenkov in Kazakhstan is closely combined with the public activity. In 1948, VG Fesenkov was elected deputy of the City Council of the Alma-Ata. In the period of 1955-1964 years. He was a member and Vice-Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (1955-1959).

In 1945 he was awarded the Order V.G.Fesenkov Lenin for outstanding contributions to the development of science and technology in connection with the 220th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the medal “For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945.”.

n 1947 he was awarded the title of Honoured Scientist of the Kazakh SSR. In 1953, for longevity and durability V.G.Fesenkov awarded the Order of Lenin. In 1959 V.G.Fesenkov awarded the Order of the Red Banner in connection with the 70th anniversary, and for contributions to the development of astrophysics.

Naming Basil G. Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR is a clear evidence of the recognition of his great achievements in the development and formation of astrophysical science in Kazakhstan.